# Comparison between Deductive and Inductive Method

### Introduction to Induction and Deduction

There are two methods of reasoning the deductive method and the inductive method. Both the methods are forms of logic that help to establish the truth. It means generalization can be drawn by using these two methods. During scientific reasoning, true logic can be stressed through deduction as well as induction. This article tries to present the comparison between the deductive and the inductive method.

Deductive reasoning is a fundamental structure of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, initiates with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion. Scientific researchers use the deductive method to test theories and hypotheses.

Inductive reasoning on the other hand is contrary to deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning seeks lane generalizations from specific observations. In essence, there is data, and then conclusions are drawn from the data. In the process of inference from induction, we go from a particular to a general. The researchers have to make many observations, determine a pattern, generalize, and figure out an explanation of a theory.  This sort of reasoning is also known as a derivation of generalization based on experience and observations.

The comparison between deductive and inductive methods includes the discussion covering similarities and differences among both the methods of logic or reasoning. Both are related to each other while performing research.

### Differences between deductive and inductive methods/comparison between the deductive and the inductive method

The major differences noticed between deductive and inductive methods/comparison between the deductive and the inductive method can be listed below;

### Endnotes

In economics, the issue of whether a deduction is to be used in preference to induction and vice versa has been the subject matter of a raging and tearing controversy in the past.  The controversy has not been finally settled although it does not burn as brightly as it did a generation or two back. In the latter half of the 19th century, there was a bitter controversy between the Classical School of Britain and The Historical School of Germany. The Classical School stood solidly for deduction while the Historical School represented a reaction against the Classical School, and stood in favor of induction. This could be observed from the given comparison between the deductive and the inductive method as well.

The modern viewpoint in this regard is that both are needed for the proper development of scientific economic theories. These two methods are complementary rather than competitive. Modern economists first derive hypotheses through the process of logical deduction and then empirically test them through statistical or econometric models. According to Marshall, induction and deduction are both needed for scientific thought as the right and left foot are both needed for walking. Therefore, induction and deduction both are used in the studies of economic phenomena in various fields for arriving at generalizations from observed facts for the indirect verification of the hypothesis. Conclusions drawn from deduction are confirmed by induction.

References

Ahuja, H.L. (2017). Advanced Economic Theory. New Delhi: S Chand And Company Limited.

Jhingan, M.L (2012). Advanced Economic Theory. New Delhi: Vrinda Publications (P) LTD.

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