Research is a systematic and logical procedure in order to get answers to certain well-defined questions. It is a problem solving and fact-finding method that consists of problem recognition and identification, hypothesis formulation, observation, data collection, data analysis, and at the end interpreting the findings and results. Research should be systematic and objective analysis that may lead to the generalization of principles or theories resulting in production and possibly control of the event.
It should be scientific, systematic, and verifiable.
- Research should be scientific means as a researcher he or she has to follow the well defined and verified procedures and logic of research. Any research adopting random and customized steps or procedures would not be able to give the real meaning of research.
- Research should be systemic means it has to follow a well defined and universally adopted sequence of conducting research. The research does not follow the systematic and logical steps will not give any sense. The research which has not followed a systematic process is not research at all
- Research should be verifiable means the finding and conclusions of research must be verifiable. The duplicate result should come if it is done again and again over time.
Scientific research refers to the process of conducting research. It means the research which is conducted with some scientific characteristics is called scientific research. Scientific research is not any special type of research nut it is different than general research. Any research can be scientific research if it has followed the scientific attributes.
The scientific attribute basically means solving the problem or issue by analyzing the entire aspect of the problem systematically and logically. It requires a technical and logical statement that minimizes the error, wrong concepts, and helps to find truth and facts as far as possible. The research is essentially freed from personal biases, behavior, emotions, sentiments, attitudes, and values. It is a universally accepted technique of research.
Thus scientific research is systematic and empirical research that has been conducted on the basis of evidence and logic. It is critically investigated research and has done all the possible empirical investigations among and between variables in the study.
It aims to find the real causes of the issues, collect all the data related to the issue, analyze them systematically, and find the best possible solution to the issue and context. Results are not based on individual experiences and beliefs.
Characteristics of Scientific Research
Research should have a specific, certain, and clear purpose and objective. The clearly stated objective leads to entire research towards desired pathways and destinations. Research without a specific purpose may lead the researcher towards wrong directions and default conclusions.
The finding of the research or stated hypothesis of the research should be testable by using different tools. The testability characteristic of research helps to make research more generalized and reliable.
Replicability of research means getting duplicate results while conducting the same research again and again over time. So it requires a critical examination of research and all the methods adopted in the research.
Objectivity in the research means the accuracy and experimentation background of findings and conclusions of the research. This feature requires that the conclusion drawn should not be guided and affected by any personal biases of the researcher. So findings should be based on facts and empiricism. Higher objective interpretation of data higher will be the degree of scientific nature of research.
Rigorous indicates systemized and exact. So the research should have followed valid, relevant, and undoubting methods of investigation. It means research should be rigid, less flexible, systemized, and logical. There should be enough sample size in the study and it must have followed all the essential steps of logical sequence.
It refers to accuracy and exactness. In research, precision means that the finding and conclusions of research should be accurate as possible. The findings should be closer to the real-life of people and events. A higher degree of accuracy makes the research more generalized and applicable.
The major aim of scientific research is to make its conclusion and findings generalized. The generalization of research refers to the extent of application of findings and their validity in different situations. Results should be generalized as much as possible.
General Research VS Scientific Research
The difference between general research and scientific research can be shown as;
Therefore scientific research is more applicable, logical, and generated in nature. All the research could be scientific if they consist of the above-mentioned characteristics of scientific research.