# MA Microeconomics Note TU

## The Laws of Returns to Scale

Introduction The laws of returns to scale explain the input-output relationship under the condition that both the inputs (labor and capital) are variable and their quantity increases proportionately (by same size or proportion) and simultaneously.  When both the inputs labor and capital are increased proportionately, the scale or volume of production also increases. So, the […]

## Law of Variable Proportion

Introduction The law of variable proportion is a widely observed law of production that takes place in the short run. The law was propounded by economists like Joan Robinson, Alfred Marshall, P.A. Samuelson, etc. This law is also known as the law of diminishing returns. The law is concerned with a short-run production function.

## Factors Affecting Price Elasticity of Demand

In this article, we have explained different factors affecting the price elasticity of demand The value of price elasticity of demand is based on so many factors and such factors are collectively called determinants of price elasticity of demand. If the magnitude of price elasticity of demand is greater than one then the demand is

## The Law of Substitution

Introduction German economist H.H. Gossen developed his second law as the law of substitution or the law of equi-marginal utility/the law of maximum satisfaction in 1854 AD. This law is further developed and popularized by Prof. Alfred Marshall. According to this law, the consumer allocates her/her limited money income among various goods for getting maximum

## Total Utility, Marginal Utility, and their Relationship

Concept of Cardinal Utility: Total Utility and Marginal Utility In this article ‘total Utility, marginal Utility, and their relationship’, we try to explain the meaning of total utility, marginal utility, and the relationship between marginal utility and total utility In economics, the term utility refers to ‘the pleasure or satisfaction that individuals get from their

## Meaning and Types of the Production Function

Meaning of the Production Function The technical process that links inputs to the output of a good is known as the production function of that good. It is defined as the technological relationship between inputs and output giving the maximum output that can be produced from various input combinations. The production function analyses the relationship

## Macroeconomic Variables

The performance and behavior of the economy can be shown and analyzed by different economic variables and these are known as macroeconomic variables. Thus, macroeconomic variables are indicators or pointers that exhibit the situation and trends of the entire economy or show the pattern of the economic status of a country. Macroeconomic variables are crucial

## Difference between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

The subject matter of economics is broadly divided into two branches, namely microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics and macroeconomics have become household worlds today. Microeconomic and macroeconomic analysis is now considered two important approaches to economic analysis. Microeconomics The prefix ‘micro’ is originated from the Greek word ‘mikros’, meaning small. It is the study of the

## The Achievements of Development Planning in SAARC Countries

Learning ObjectiveTo discuss the achievements of development planning in SAARC Countries SAARC Countries have experienced several changes and improvements because of economic planning in the region. The region has completed more than five decades of economic planning. The South Asian economies have come a long way since the starting of planning in the 1950s. Some

## Income and Substitution Effects of a Price Change

In our situation of good X, good Y, and money income M; if money income and the price of good Y stays the same but the price of good X rises, then the consumer will feel poorer, and if the price of good X falls, then the consumer will feel richer. This observation has led

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